Research carried out on the whitening effect of NOVON®-containing whitening gels and the structure of the adduct, is set out in research published by Hyland et al. (2014). (In the publication NOVON® is referred to as ‘Carbamide Plus’, the former designation of NOVON®)
Researchers at the Eastman Dental Institute, University College, London identified that NOVON®-containing gels with an active content equivalent to 5% carbamide peroxide, were as effective as 10% carbamide peroxide whitening gels.
NMR spectroscopy, carried out by the University of Ulster researchers, revealed strong intermolecular interactions between hydrogen peroxide and both urea and sodium tripolyphosphate, with little apparent interaction between urea and sodium tripolyphosphate. The researchers postulate NOVON® to be a three-component adduct with two molecules of carbamide peroxide binding to a central sodium tripolyphosphate molecule with no direct interaction between sodium tripolyphosphate and urea.
The postulated structure of NOVON®.